October 29, 2017
My kids will learn that they are the sons and daughters of charity parents.
Two weeks ago, I wrote about the measurement of the poverty rate in America. Why is our standard different than the one adopted by all other developed countries? What efforts have we made to alleviate poverty, and have those programs helped or hurt the poor?
Qualifications for benefits under various programs rely primarily on paid income. As a person exceeds certain thresholds of income, benefits are reduced or stopped entirely. Regardless of how we define a reduction in benefits, it feels like a tax to the recipients. Under these programs, the poor pay the highest tax – 100%. $1 earned above a certain threshold results in a $1 reduction in benefits. There is a very real incentive to hide reported income.
As I showed earlier, the poverty standard adopted by the U.S. undercounts the number of poor. On the other hand, income earned in the underground economy is not counted and results in an overcount of the poor.
We may associate “underground” with “illegal” but it includes both legal and illegal activities. A better synonym would be “unreported.” Workers in the unreported economy may include the kid down the block who mows our lawn, the guy who repaired our fence, the woman who walks our dog when we work late.
Almost all of us are part of the unreported economy whether we realize it or not. Recent estimates of the size of this shadow economy in the U.S. are from 7% to 11%. In dollar amounts, that’s $1.4 trillion to over $2 trillion. In less developed economies, it can be as much as 25%.
The tragedy of current programs is that they often discourage recipients from getting more work, or better paid work. The loss of Medicaid benefits dissuades a single mom with children from taking on employment unless she can find an employer who provides health insurance for her and her children. Many don’t.
Income above a certain threshold may disqualify someone from housing benefits. Under a Section 8 housing program, a low-income person pays 30% of their monthly income for housing (Section 8 FAQs). HUD, a Federal agency, and state agencies pay the rest of the rent. Section 8 housing is in short supply. The amount of paperwork and inspections required by HUD dissuades many real estate owners from enrolling their properties in the program.
These programs would improve by paying benefits on a graduated scale rather than using a qualifying threshold. Under the current system, a person making less than half the area’s median income, let’s say $24,000, gets housing assistance and other benefits. If they make above that, they may receive nothing under some Federal and state programs. That is the equivalent of a 100% – or higher – tax.
This graduated scale should apply to everyone. That includes the richest people on the planet like Bill Gates and Warren Buffett, who would also be eligible for housing vouchers, food stamps, for supplemental income and Medical benefits. As income increased, benefits would be gradually decreased. Bill Gates would be eligible for housing assistance, but his monthly benefit would be $0. For many of us, there would be no incentive to apply.
A graduated scale would help eliminate the quiet shame that some people experience when they receive public assistance. Like it or not, there is a stigma attached to being poor and receiving benefits.
A person with a disability can receive Social Security and Medicare. They can be quick to point out the fact. They are not on SSI, a program for low-income people. They are on Social Security. They paid into the insurance system. They got hurt. They are collecting on the insurance payments they made during a lifetime of work. Because they are disabled, they are on Medicare, not Medicaid. Medicaid is for poor people. If they are poor, it is only because they became disabled.
If I am a worker with a family to support and I make $11 per hour, or about $450 a week, my family is qualified to receive housing, food, medical and other assistance programs. I may be experienced in a few construction trades, but my tools were stolen last year. Perhaps I don’t have reliable transportation. I could make more money if I could get some tools or a more reliable car, but I can barely take care of my family. How can I get ahead?
A concrete contractor offers me a job paying $20 an hour for a project that will last the summer months for sure. However, the winter months may be a bit lean. The additional income will put me over the income threshold and my family will lose most of the benefits.
If I calculate the benefit my family currently receives in addition to my current $11 per hour wage as a janitor, I am receiving the equivalent of about $20 an hour. Even though I prefer to take the new job, I should continue to work at my current job for the sake of my family. Perhaps I can find a few jobs on the side, or “under the table,” but these are sporadic.
If I continue to stay out of the construction trades, my skills will atrophy. My self-confidence will erode. My kids will learn that they are the sons and daughters of charity parents.
The example above is all too common. If we had a gradual system of benefit awards, such a worker would be more inclined to take that better paying job. With a higher income, they might be able to get a loan for more reliable transportation. Their family might be able to afford more housing choices.
Who benefits under the current system? Whenever a poorly performing system stays in place, there is usually a small group of people who benefit under that system. They don’t want it to change.
Am I being a bit too cynical? No. It is Realpolitik. The practical benefits for one group of people outweigh any moral considerations by that group. In a later blog, I’ll look at who benefits from the current system.