by Steve Stofka
December 17, 2016
On our journey on the sea of life, we sometimes hear the siren call of politicians who promise simple taxes. “File your taxes on a postcard” their voices echo across the waters as they invite us to their island. Our journey is long and treacherous, so we are drawn to the prospect of simple tax filing.
Some taxpayer boats weave through the sharp rocks that lay just off the sandy shores of the simple tax island. They are greeted by the politicians who give them postcards to celebrate their arrival. Many boats are caught in the turbulent waters and are swallowed up by the tax monsters lurking in the sea. “Alas!” they wail as they curse themselves for their attraction to the politicians’ call.
So the story goes with the tax bill that Republicans hope to pass next week. I didn’t think that the bill would get this far.
Many paycheck employees will find the new tax rule simpler. Student loan interest will continue to be an “above the line” deduction from income. The child tax credit will be doubled to $2000. To satisfy Republican Sen. Marco Rubio’s demands, more of this credit will be refundable to those taxpayers who pay little or no income tax.
Those in high tax states will suffer under the new tax bill, which allows only $10,000 in combined deductions for state, local and property taxes (SALT). Deductible mortgage interest will be capped as well. Tax policy has long subsidized homeowners over renters and favored those in coastal states (NY Times article).
Many taxpayers will find it more advantageous to take the newly doubled standard deduction of $24,000. Under the new law, 529-college funds can now be used for K-12 tuition and qualified expenses.
Caught in the rocks and turbulent waters are professionals and business owners, who have adopted “pass-through” ownership structures to legally minimize taxes under current law. This group accounts for 30% of all business income. As this Journal of Accountancy article notes, court rulings and IRS guidance can be complex and contradictory. The new tax bill only complicates the familiarity of the existing complexity.
These non-paycheck earners receive all or part of their business income through a Sub-S corporation, an LLC, or partnership. Unlike a conventional C-corporation, these businesses “pass through” their profits to the owner/partners who pay at a personal tax rate. Under the new tax bill, some of that income may be subject to a 20% exclusion from taxes.
Under the new tax bill, the tax rate for C-corps will be reduced to 21%. Depending on individual circumstances, some owner groups may find it advantageous to adopt a C-corp ownership structure.
25 million sole proprietors account for 11% of non-farm business income. Many are low-profit or part-time businesses which will remain sole proprietors. Higher volume businesses may want to revisit their ownership strategies with their accountants.
Corporations will benefit from the reduced tax rate but the accountants for publicly held corporations are dreading the prospect that the new tax law will be signed before the new year. Under GAAP accounting rules, those corporations must estimate the effect of the tax changes and present those estimates at the next earnings announcement which are scheduled for late January or February. Number crunchers can cancel that Cabo vacation during Christmas week.
The rich benefit because they pay an outsize portion of income taxes. According to the IRS (2016 tax stats on this page) , taxpayers with adjusted gross incomes (AGI) above $500K were only .8% of the 150 million individual returns. Their AGI was 19.4% of the $10 trillion in income reported, but they paid 36.5% of the $1.4 trillion in Federal income taxes.
These high incomes will get a reduction in taxes from 39.6% to 37%. The very rich – those with an AGI above $10 million – get half of their income from capital gains, which are not affected by the new tax law. Despite promising to do so, lawmakers did not reduce or repeal the 3.8% Obamacare tax on investment income for high income taxpayers. Based on 2016 tax data, they probably could not forgo the tax revenue and keep the ten-year cost of the bill under $1.5 trillion.
In short, the new bill will create two classes of taxpayers – the postcard and non-postcard payers. Some tax preparers and accountants may worry that the new law will reduce their business. Rest assured – Congress does not know how to write tax laws that are not complex. Thank God for politics!